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dc.contributor.advisorLeón Paredes, Joffre
dc.contributor.authorContreras Cobos, Kevin Steven
dc.date.accessioned2021-05-25T19:46:14Z
dc.date.available2021-05-25T19:46:14Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttp://dspace.utb.edu.ec/handle/49000/9340
dc.descriptionAvocado (Persea americana) can be an option to improve the economy of farmers, transform rural areas and diversify crops, so these projects have become a strategic option for large-scale industries. The global consumption of this fruit is increasing, because it generates employment, economic resources and helps to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as having social, economic and environmental benefits. Ecuador produces two varieties of avocados: Fuerte (which represents 99% of national consumption) and Hass (for export). They grow on 800 hectares of land in the provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay, Loja and Santa Elena. The black spot (Cercospora purpurea) attacks the leaves and produces small dark brown lesions. When the attack is severe, they will fall and the trees will lose their leaves. In fruit it produces small dark lesions with irregular edges and cracked rind. Damage to the leaves and fruits helps other organisms such as anthracnose to enter. With the preventive measures in cultural control, pruning the crop before the start of the productive stage reduced the incidence of the fungus in fruits by 50%, compared to not carrying out this practice, which allows more light and aeration to the trees, but it is necessary to seal the wounds caused by pruning by applying oil-based paint, with a brush, in the pruned region. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the treatment of avocado fruits, in pre-harvest, with isolates of Bacillus subtilis reduces the severity of the black spot of the avocado in storage. In chemical control based on the rotation of fungicides alone, such as Difenoconazole (0.18 g / L), Tebuconazole (0.20 g / L) + Trifloxystrobin (0.10 g / L); or in a mixture with copper oxychloride, Triadimenol (0.25 g / L) + Azoxystrobin (0.1 g / L)], every 21 days from flowering to harvest.es_ES
dc.descriptionAvocado (Persea americana) can be an option to improve the economy of farmers, transform rural areas and diversify crops, so these projects have become a strategic option for large-scale industries. The global consumption of this fruit is increasing, because it generates employment, economic resources and helps to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as having social, economic and environmental benefits. Ecuador produces two varieties of avocados: Fuerte (which represents 99% of national consumption) and Hass (for export). They grow on 800 hectares of land in the provinces of Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay, Loja and Santa Elena. The black spot (Cercospora purpurea) attacks the leaves and produces small dark brown lesions. When the attack is severe, they will fall and the trees will lose their leaves. In fruit it produces small dark lesions with irregular edges and cracked rind. Damage to the leaves and fruits helps other organisms such as anthracnose to enter. With the preventive measures in cultural control, pruning the crop before the start of the productive stage reduced the incidence of the fungus in fruits by 50%, compared to not carrying out this practice, which allows more light and aeration to the trees, but it is necessary to seal the wounds caused by pruning by applying oil-based paint, with a brush, in the pruned region. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the treatment of avocado fruits, in pre-harvest, with isolates of Bacillus subtilis reduces the severity of the black spot of the avocado in storage. In chemical control based on the rotation of fungicides alone, such as Difenoconazole (0.18 g / L), Tebuconazole (0.20 g / L) + Trifloxystrobin (0.10 g / L); or in a mixture with copper oxychloride, Triadimenol (0.25 g / L) + Azoxystrobin (0.1 g / L)], every 21 days from flowering to harvest.es_ES
dc.description.abstractEl aguacate (Persea americana) pueden ser una opción para mejorar la economía de los agricultores, transformar las áreas rurales y diversificar los cultivos, por lo que estos proyectos se han convertido en una opción estratégica para las industrias a gran escala. El consumo global de esta fruta va en aumento, porque genera empleo, recursos económicos y ayuda a mitigar y adaptarse al cambio climático, además tiene beneficios sociales, económicos y medioambientales. Ecuador produce dos variedades de aguacates: Fuerte (que representa el 99% del consumo nacional) y Hass (para exportación). Crecen en 800 hectáreas de terreno en las provincias de Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay, Loja y Santa Elena. La mancha negra (Cercospora purpurea) ataca las hojas y produce pequeñas lesiones de color marrón oscuro. Cuando el ataque sea severo, caerán y los árboles perderán sus hojas. En fruto produce pequeñas lesiones oscuras con bordes irregulares y cáscara agrietada. El daño a las hojas y frutos ayuda a que entren otros organismos como la antracnosis. Con las medidas de prevención en control cultural la poda al cultivo antes del inicio de la etapa productiva redujo la incidencia del hongo en frutos en un 50%, comparada con la no realización de esta práctica, que permitan mayor luminosidad y aireación a los árboles, pero es necesario sellar las heridas causadas por la poda aplicando pintura a base de aceite, con brocha, en la región podada. Se ha demostrado experimentalmente que el tratamiento de frutos de aguacate, en pre cosecha, con aislamientos de Bacillus subtilis reducen la severidad de la mancha negra del aguacate en almacenamiento. En control quimico basado en la rotación de fungicidas solos, como Difenoconazole (0,18 g / L), Tebuconazole (0,20 g / L) + Trifloxystrobin (0,10 g / L); o en mezcla con oxicloruro de cobre, Triadimenol (0,25 g / L) + Azoxystrobin (0,1 g / L)], cada 21 días desde la floración hasta la cosecha.es_ES
dc.format.extent17 p.es_ES
dc.language.isoeses_ES
dc.publisherBABAHOYO: UTB, 2021es_ES
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Ecuador*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ec/*
dc.subjectAguacatees_ES
dc.subjectOrganismoes_ES
dc.subjectCutáneases_ES
dc.subjectHongoes_ES
dc.titleIdentificación de los síntomas de la Mancha negra (Cercospora purpura), en el cultivo de aguacate (Persea americana) y su método de controles_ES
dc.typebachelorThesises_ES


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Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Ecuador
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Ecuador